PROs and ClinROs
Linguistic Validation for PROs and ClinROs
The majority of measures are originally developed in English. It is now recognized that if measures are to be used across cultures, the items must not only be translated well linguistically, but also must be adapted culturally to maintain the content validity of the instrument, at a conceptual level across different cultures.
Mapi refers to the process aiming at the production of appropriate translated language versions as linguistic validation, a process that we were the first to develop in a coherent manner; inspiring as such, the ISPOR guidelines.
In order to make sure that the content validity of the original and translated versions are comparable, we have developed the following steps in an unprecedented manner:
Conceptual analysis of the source instrument:
Mapi systematically involves the developers of the scales in the process, specifically for conceptual analysis, which is the preliminary step of any linguistic-validation process.
- Analysis of the concepts investigated in the instrument to be translated by Mapi’s Project Manager and validation by the developer.
- Additionally, Mapi will contact the developers throughout the project for further clarification and discussion as needed.
In-depth cognitive interviews (PROs) and clinician’s review (ClinROs)
We have developed strong expertise in the Linguistic Validation of ClinROs, in particular, Neurocognitive Assessments (e.g., ADAS-Cog, RAVLT, M.I.N.I., RBANS, etc.).
See here our methodology workflow for PROs and ClinROs. For more details, see our Linguistic Validation Manual.
We supply translation certificates and supporting documentation (i.e., report) that detail the steps in providing the linguistically validated translations.
Mapi maintains an in-house Questionnaire Translation Database - “PROfile” that centralizes all linguistic-validation projects and translations done at Mapi. It provides immediate access to the methodology of linguistic validation used to generate the translations, as well as identifies the original versions used to generate the translations, including formatted versions.
Endowed with an unparalleled network of worldwide PRO consultants, Mapi operates in over 100 countries and covers more than 170 languages. Projects including 40 languages are common, and we previously conducted projects with up to 60 languages for more than 10 instruments. Our centralized project-management structure allows real-time communication with our clients, as well as our PRO Consultants worldwide.
Partnership and Exclusiveness of translations
Mapi has a preferred relationship with such prestigious institutions as the EORTC, for the linguistic validation of their instruments.
Mapi has over 50 exclusive partnerships with developers of gold-standard instruments. This represents over a hundred instruments that we have developed a specific process, in collaboration with the developers, to respond to the specificities and complexity of these instruments.